Allergic Rhinitis: Symptoms, Causes and Prevention

Allergic rhinitis causes symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing and itching. These symptoms are caused by inflammation inside the nose due to allergies.

In most cases, the main goal in the treatment of this problem is to get rid of these symptoms. If the symptoms are not so severe, you can usually treat them on your own. However, if home remedies do not work or if the symptoms worsen and create obstacles in living a normal life, then the doctor must be consulted.

Symptom of allergic rhinitis
Symptom of allergic rhinitis

Symptoms of allergic rhinitis

The symptoms of allergic rhinitis are very much like the common cold and cough. The symptoms include-

  • Sneezing
  • Feeling itchy inside the nose
  • Runny nose, nasal congestion, or a cold

Usually, these symptoms start to appear shortly after coming in contact with something that has allergies. In most patients, the symptoms are mild and can be easily cured with effective treatment. However, in some patients, the symptoms can be severe and can last for a few years, which makes the normal life painful and causes various problems. For example: having trouble sleeping.

The duration of symptoms can vary from person to person. For example, some people develop allergic rhinitis in certain seasons, as they are allergic to the pollen of seasonal plants and grasses, and the symptoms also go away with the change of season. Others suffer almost throughout the year.

You may also like: H3N2 Virus: A new threat of Swine flu virus to Human

Causes of allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis has an allergy to various things at its root. In response to allergies, a chemical substance called histamine comes out in our body. Histamine causes inflammation in the inner skin of the nose. Then a lot of slippery fluids like mucus are formed inside the nose. After that, various symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including sneezing and runny nose, appear. Every person is allergic to different things. If someone in the family suffers from allergies, the chances of other members getting allergies increase due to genetic reasons.

Things that are commonly seen to cause allergies include:

  • Dust Mite
  • Pollen molecules
  • Domestic animals and birds
  • Fungi

There are many allergic elements in the workplace environment. For example —

  • Wood powder
  • Flour and flour powder
  • Latex or special types of rubber gloves

Note: allergies can also occur due to some environmental reasons. Studies have shown that if family members have a habit of smoking or if there is a dust mite at home, the risk of allergies can increase in children growing there.

Treatment of allergic rhinitis

If the symptoms of allergic rhinitis are mild, it can be treated domestically. In this case, the goal of treatment is to relieve the symptoms of nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing.

There are three cases in which you should consult a doctor-

  • If home remedies don’t work
  • If the symptoms are severe
  • If there is a hindrance in living a normal life due to severe symptoms. For example: having trouble sleeping, interrupting daily activities.

Medicines for Allergic Rhinitis

Common symptoms of allergic rhinitis can be relieved through medication. However, allergies cannot be completely cured.

If allergy problems occur during the change of season, you can take the medicine for a certain period. Once the symptoms go away, there is no need to take any more medicines. Effective medicines for allergic rhinitis include:


Antihistamines are available to buy in pharmacies as tablets, sprays, drops, syrups and creams. Buying antihistamine tablets usually doesn’t require a doctor’s prescription. However, if there is a problem with kidney or liver or in the case of seizure patients or children under 2 years of age, the doctor should be consulted before using these medicines.

Note:  Taking some antihistamine medications can cause side effects such as drowsiness. Therefore, medicines should not be taken before driving the car and driving the machine. Take the medication before going to bed at night to avoid risks.

Antihistamine medications start working faster than tablets or syrups as nasal sprays. They are relatively more effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. However, it is not right to use these sprays without the advice of the doctor.


In some cases, the use of nose drops or sprays containing corticosteroids or steroids is recommended to treat allergic rhinitis. For example —

  • After a few days, symptoms appeared.
  • If the symptoms last for a long time
  • If the nose is closed or if the nose is polyp
  • If there is no improvement in symptoms even after using home remedies and antihistamines

This type of medicine helps in relieving symptoms by reducing inflammation inside the nose. Although they take longer to work than antihistamines, they have a long-term effect. In certain cases, the doctor may recommend taking steroid tablets for 5-10 days to treat severe symptoms. Side effects are rare in users of steroid nasal sprays and drops. However, in some cases, side effects such as dry nose, irritation inside the nose, or bleeding can occur.

Note: Steroid tablets should not be taken at all without the advice of a doctor. Taking steroids for a long time or in high doses can cause various side effects.  So do not eat these medicines by watching the internet or buying these medicines yourself from the pharmacy.

Note that if the above treatments do not work, the doctor can increase the dose of steroid spray or drop. In addition, the patient may be advised to use different medicines or use more than one type of medicine together.

Prevention of allergic rhinitis

The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid things that trigger or can cause allergies. It can be difficult to avoid allergy-inducing things altogether. As such, it can be difficult to be sure if there are dust mites at home. Because they can breed even in very clean homes. Again, if you have pets in your own or a close relative’s house, it is also natural to avoid contact with them.

However, there are several steps that can be taken to minimize exposure to allergy-inducing things as much as possible. They will be very effective in relieving the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Below are some effective tips to avoid common allergic ingredients:

Dust Mite:

Small insects called dust mites are one of the biggest causes of allergies.  They breed in the dust at home. Because they are very small in size, they cannot be seen with the naked eye. So it’s very difficult to identify.

Follow the following tips to prevent allergies from dust mites:

  • Wash bed sheets, kanthas, curtains, soft toys for small children, pillows and coating covers with warm water at least once a week.
  • Things that cannot be washed easily at home, the less they can be used at home, the better. For example: carpets and woolen blankets. You can use a floormat of hard vinyl instead of carpets. Synthetic cloth covers that can be easily washed in the case of blankets can be used.
  • Always keep the places where most time is spent in the house dust-free and clean. For example: sitting and bedroom.
  • Wear a good mask while arranging and sweeping the bed.
  • Wipe the things that can be wiped with a wet cloth with a wet cloth. For example: floors and furniture of the house. In this, the dust will fly less in the air, it will not spread.
  • Some use vacuum cleaners at home. In that case, if possible, you can use a cleaner with ‘Hepa Filter’. They are more effective in removing dust.


Many people think that allergic reactions occur in the feathers or fur of animals and birds. That’s a wrong idea. Basically, dead cells, facial saliva and dry urine particles that fall from the body of animals and birds cause allergies.

If there is a problem of allergic rhinitis, it is better to avoid pets. If this is not possible, you can follow the following suggestions:

  • Try to keep your pet out of the house as much as possible. If it is not possible to nurture outside, arrange for them to stay in a separate room at home and avoid the use of carpets there.
  • Do not allow pets to enter the bedroom.
  • Bathe your pet at least once every two weeks.
  • Take care of the skin, including taking the pet dog out of the house regularly, scratching the fur, brushing it.
  • Wash the used beds, soft cushions and used items of the animals regularly.
  • There are no pets in your home, but the friend or relative who is going to the house has a pet – in such a case, take antihistamines an hour before entering their house.

Pollen molecules or pollens:

Pollination of different types of plants occurs at different times of the year. So, at what time of the year the incidence of allergic rhinitis will increase depending on which type of pollen allergy is there. However, due to the increase in the amount of pollen molecules in the air in spring and summer, most people are usually seen to be affected by allergic rhinitis at this time.

The following tips may be effective in preventing allergic rhinitis through pollen molecules:

  • Stay indoors as much as possible during the changing seasons, especially in summer and spring.
  • Keep the doors and windows of the house closed in the middle of the morning and before dusk. At this time, the number of pollen grains in the air is the highest.
  • If the amount of pollen molecules in the air increases, avoid going out of the house without an urgent need. If you want to go out alone, take a bath after returning home. Wash the clothes you went out wearing.
  • If possible, let the clothes dry inside the house. However, you have to be careful not to grow fungus at home.
  • Avoid walking in places where the amount of grass is high.

Mold or fungus:

A warm and damp environment can increase the incidence of such allergies. Follow the following tips to prevent this:

  • In addition to keeping the environment of the house dry, keep a good system of light-air movement.
  • Repair the damp and moist areas inside the house.
  • Open the windows during bathing and cooking. However, keep the kitchen and bathroom doors closed so that the steam does not spread inside the house. Also, use an exhaust fan to flush the steam out of the house.
  • Avoid letting wet clothes dry inside the house. Avoid keeping clothes in damp places and keeping many clothes tight in certain places in the closet.
  • If there is a tree in the house, remove it.

Complications of allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis may cause some complications. There may be some other problems from runny nose and nose closure problems. For example —

  • Sleep problems or sleeplessness
  • Sleeping during the day
  • Temper irritability
  • Having trouble paying attention to work

Note that if the patient suffers from allergic rhinitis as well as asthma, the symptoms of asthma can get worse. In allergic rhinitis, inflammation of the nose can result in some complications. For example —

Share this post:

7 thoughts on “Allergic Rhinitis: Symptoms, Causes and Prevention”

Leave a Comment